Interpretive Authority

Interpretive authority explained

I employ the notion of ‘interpretive authority’ in order to draw attention to the parts teachers and students play in framing questions for consideration, developing tentative thoughts and theories, and evaluating those ideas in classroom discussions (FDE). Although  teachers generally frame discussion questions and then evaluate their students’ ideas themselves, classroom research suggests that having students generate their own questions and weigh each others’ ideas against some available proving ground can promote deep and lasting forms of learning.

Democratic educators require clear and principled grounds for designing and enacting distinctively democratic classroom practices. The FDE heuristic offers practical means for supporting individual classroom teachers, schools, and school systems in investigating and theorizing the kinds of learning opportunities that are being made available to students within different classrooms and within different academic areas at every stage of their school careers.

In revealing the social and intellectual demands made by various forms of classroom interaction, research on interpretive authority distributions can help to inform educators’ decisions about when and how to open up topics to student inquiry and discussion. This kind of grounded investigation of classroom practices promises not only to deepen professional conversations within schools, but also to support the broader field in thinking beyond standardized test scores in its struggle to improve the quality of educational opportunity available to all.

The case for focusing on middle schools

Just as early childhood educators seek to establish constructive patterns as children begin their primary schooling, preadolescence offers educators the opportunity to intervene as a child moves into abstract thought and the new kinds of learning it enables. Like early childhood, ‘early adulthood’ calls for pedagogical interventions tailored to the challenges and possibilities of this developmental moment.

Children are intellectually vulnerable and socially uncertain at this time of their lives. Nurturing students’ personal sense of interpretive authority in relation to their immediate worlds can draw them into an engagement with academic thought during a time marked by their intense self-absorption and growing preoccupation with peer relationships. In inspiring probing discussions about conceptually central matters, and by demonstrating the ways in which disciplinary lenses can provide traction for advancing one’s personal observations and reflections, educators provide compelling justification for the demands they make on students’ lives.


Mayer, S. J., (2017). The Social World, the Creative Self, and the Ongoing Achievement of Freedom. The Review of Education, Pedagogy, and Cultural Studies, 39(1), 7-17.

Mayer, S. J., (2012). Classroom Discourse and Democracy: Making Meanings Together. New York: Peter Lang.

Mayer, S. J., (2009). Conceptualizing Interpretive Authority in Practical Terms. Language and Education, 23(3), 199-216.